S-Series Military Blast Shelter Model Performance Data Summary
|S-Series Bomb Shelter Performance Data|
|Air blower volume 12-VDC||40 to 100 cfm @ 1 in S.P.||Std. Air Filtration|
|Air filter||40 to 1000 cfm, 99.99% @ 0.3u||NBC Package|
|Air filter — carbon-activated lbs./100 cfm||15-40||NBC Package|
|Air filter — carbon-activated residence time||0.25 sec||NBC Package|
|Air filter — carbon-TEDA lbs./100 cfm||15-40||NBC Package|
|Air filter — carbon-TEDA residence time||0.25 sec||NBC Package|
|Air filtration system||BIBO long term ASHRAE, MIL 282, MIL 32101, NBC, HEPA||NBC Package|
|Air manifold||40 psi, 5 psi negative||Std. Air Filtration|
|Corrosion protection||Cathodic Sacrificial Anodes||30 Year Std., 40 and 50 Year Optional|
|Counter hydrostatic S.F.||1.2||Std. Structure|
|Distance from ground zero||0.9 miles 100 KT SB||NBC Package|
|Emergency door opening||30 in. dia. mechanical jack system 16,000 lb.||Std. Eway/Walk-In Eway|
|Engineering Standards||ABYC, ANSI, API, ASHRAE, ASME, ASTM, MIL, NACE, NEC, NSF, POP, STI, UL||Std. Structure/Applicable Package|
|Failure mode||non-catastrophic||Std. Structure|
|Fire resistance hatch||ASTM E-119 1 hr @ 1700 F. mechanical||Std. Structure|
|Fire resistance interior||Flame spread 25, ASTM E84||Std. Structure|
|Hatch pressure resistance||40 psi positive, 5 psi negative||Std. Structure|
|Maximum wind with flying debris||350 MPH||Std. Structure|
|Overpressure rating||10 psi with no earth-arching effect||Std. Structure|
|Radiation design dose (The radiation dose for which the shelter protection is designed. This is the radiation dose an unprotected person would receive.)||
|Radiation Protection Factor (PF) @ 72 in. earth**||
|*Total Rems in Shelter (TRS)||
|Sealed shelter atmosphere||See graph for specific shelter||Std. Air Filtration|
|Warranty||30 year structural||Std. Structure|
|Water filtration||3-stage, 0.5 micron, 99.999% UV||Generator Package/Solar Package, and Plumbing Package|
S-Series Bomb Shelter Performance Data on Optional Items
|Air Filtration System||BIBO (Bag-in/Bag-out) long term ASHRAE, MIL 282, MIL 32101, NBC, HEPA|
|Air Test Port||Internal SEAM (Severe Environment Air Module) Unit|
|Electrical and Plumbing||Conventional and Conventional Pressurized|
|Off-Grid Duration||One year diesel generator at 4 hours/day|
|EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) Shielding||MIL-STD-188-125|
|Power||Internal diesel generator NBC air filter|
S16 Bomb Shelter Model-Specific Specifications
|Air blower volume 120-VAC||N/A||400 to 1000 cfm @ 6 in. S.P.||400 to 1000 cfm @ 6 in. S.P.||400 to 1000 cfm @ 6 in. S.P.||Generator Pkg.|
|Assembly time -- days, approximately||2-3||3-4 days||5 days||5 days||Installation Pkg.|
|Capacity -- adults||8-10||8-10||12-15||24-30||Std. Structure|
|Connector port to other shelters||stubout||stubout||stubout||stubout||Connector Pkg.|
|Diesel tank||N/A||800 gallon aluminum||800 gallon aluminum||800 gallon aluminum||Generator Pkg.|
|Duration with 6.5 KW diesel generator||N/A||1 year @ S.L.||1 year @ S.L.||1 year @ S.L.||Generator Pkg.|
|Floor space -- net||235 ft.2||363 ft.2||619 ft.2||1,259 2||Std. Structure|
|Hydrostatic pressure -- lbs.||177,216||265,824||443,040||265,824||Std. Structure|
|Hydrostatic pressure -- counter, lbs. @70 lbs. 1.22 S.F.||177,216||324,305||540,509||1,081,018||Std. Structure|
|Solar 2 KW||Theoretically unlimited||Theoretically unlimited||Theoretically unlimited||Theoretically unlimited||Solar Pkg.|
|Stove||methanol||electric||electric||electric||Solar Pkg./Generator Pkg. and Cooking Pkg.|
|Volume -- wall storage shelving||256 ft.3||384 ft.3||640 ft.3||1,280 ft.3||Std. Structure|
|Volume -- total||2,840 ft.3||4,260 ft.3||7,100 ft.3||14,200 ft.3||Std. Structure|
|Water heater||methanol||electric||electric||electric||Solar Pkg./Generator Pkg. and Plumbing Pkg.|
Features and Benefits: S-Series Bomb Shelter
|NORAD SHELTER FEATURE||BENEFIT TO SHELTERIST|
|HEPA DUST SEAM AIR FILTRATION For use in storm and NBC shelters, the SEAM (Severe Environment Air Module) uses a dust air filtration filter. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||Storm shelter air is filtered from normal surface contaminants making it clean and healthy to breathe.|
|NBC SEAM AIR FILTRATION SYSTEM
The NBC (Nuclear Biological Chemical) SEAM (Severe Environment Air Module) Air Filtration System removes radiation, chemical and biological threats from the shelter breathing and generator air supplies. NBC protection and generator power are standard in Military and optional in Civilian bomb shelters. Shelter occupants change the contaminated trays using the Bag In-Bag-Out (BIBO) filter change system. The BIBO system encapsulates the spent filter trays when they are being removed. The one-chamber SEAM cleans breathing air. The three-chamber SEAM cleans generator air. NBC air filtration systems come with spare filters. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: INCLUDED
|NBC Air Filtration and the BIBO air filter try changing system prevents shelter occupants from breathing and touching nuclear, biological chemical contaminants The spare filters extend the shelter duration.|
|AIR MANIFOLDS, PATENT PENDING NORAD underground shelter air manifolds at ground level are made of heavy steel and aerodynamically designed to resist 350 mph winds with flying debris. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||Even a truck running over the air manifold, or 350 mph debris hitting it, will not stop the manifold from supplying your shelter with fresh air ready to be filtered.|
|BLAST VALVES PRESSURE PROTECTION Stainless steel blast valves protect shelterists from over pressure and under pressure using redundant choking mechanisms. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: INCLUDED||All bomb blasts drastically change the air pressure around you. NORAD shelters can be equipped with blast valves protecting your lungs and ears from damage. The pressure protection system adjusts itself to protect you overpressure and underpressure.|
|EMERGENCY DISASTER MANAGEMENT RADIO PACKAGE Emergency communications equipment includes a police scanner and HAM radio in an EMP-shielded enclosure. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: INCLUDED||Listen to AM, FM, Police, Highway Patrol, government agencies etc. HAM radio allows two way communications with anyone operating on HAM radio frequencies like first responders.|
|CATHODIC CORROSION PROTECTION
High dielectric epoxy coatings and anodes provide 30 to 50 year corrosion-protection with constant pressure rating on shelter hull. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED
|The anodes connected to your shelter corrode instead of your shelter. This allows your steel shelter to be warrantied from corrosion for 30 to 50 years, depending on the cathodic protection package you own.|
|SHELTER CONNECTOR TUNNELS Connector Tunnels join the fallout shelter to existing buildings, other shelters or to other structures. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: OPTIONAL||Connector Tunnels join underground shelters to homes, office buildings, hospitals and other emergency shelters. Connectors allow communities to shelter together while maintaining separate living spaces. Emergency Operations Center and Business Continuity Centers depend on Connector Tunnels to join different groups in the organization. Businesses use multi-shelter installations for business continuity operations. Hospitals use connectors to join the main buildings to underground emergency operations centers.|
|EMP SHIELDING TO MIL-STD-188-125 and EMP VAULT All Military Shelters Shelters are EMP shielded to MIL-STD-188-125 so the Mission Critical Equipment (MEE) is protected from Electromagnetic Pulse. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: INCLUDED||Your shelter will have dependable generator power and stored battery power after an EMP attack. You can continue to use plumbing. Electronics stored in the vault such as your TV, radios and DVD player will work after after EMP attack.|
|EMP VAULT The EMP vault protects its contents from EMP attack. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: INCLUDED||Electronics stored in the vault such as your TV, radios and DVD player will work after after EMP attack.|
|ENGINEERING STANDARDS All shelter models are designed and manufactured to meet P.O.P. US Handbook Shelter Standards 2013 by Walton McCarthy, and many military standards. NORAD underground shelters are designed by the same man who wrote the industry bible on underground protection. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||Your shelter meets the highest possible standards in protection from all earth surface threats including terrorism, fire, flood, EMP attack, nuclear, biological and chemical attack and accidents.|
|2ND HATCH: 45 DEG. WALK IN ENTRANCEWAY The Walk In Entranceway has a 45 degree angle stairwell with a 36″x72″ wide hatch. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: OPTIONAL||It is easy to walk in and out of the entranceway, and items you are carrying will easily fit through the opening and stairwell. Customers concerned about intruders should have both a 45 deg. and a 68 deg. entranceway. See 2nd HATCH: 68 DEG. WALK IN ENTRANCEWAY for more information.|
|2ND HATCH: 68 DEG. WALK IN ENTRANCEWAY AND EMERGENCY ESCAPE The Walk In Entranceway has a 68 degree angle stairwell with a 30″ diameter hatch. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||Customers concerned about intruders should have a 45 deg. entranceway for supplies and a 68 deg. entranceway as a secret escape exit. The standard 30″ diameter hatch should be well camouflaged. In the event someone attempts to enter the main hatch, you can exit the camouflaged hatch undetected. You then have the option to disable the intruder. Even very large people can quickly and easily slip through the emergency escape hatch to exit the shelter. In addition to giving you a fast shelter escape path, the emergency escape feature gives you an advantage against intruders attempting to open the main hatch.|
|PERFORMANCE DATA-FEA TESTING All shelters have been modeled with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) under many load conditions. No rotationally molded tanks of any kind are used. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||NORAD shelters, entranceways, and septic tanks were designed for very heavy overhead earth, overpressure and extreme ground shock. NORAD shelters are tested and proven to be structurally extremely strong and sound even under such heavy loads|
|FOUNDATION There is no concrete in any of the shelters. The foundation is made of steel. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||Your shelter can be re-deployed to another location. A building permit is usually not required. You will not need 24-hour-a-day concrete de-humidifiers.|
|GEOMETRY EFFICIENCY All S-Series Fallout Shelters are designed to make 100% of the interior space usable while old culvert designs offer only about 60% useful space. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||NORAD S-Series Shelters are designed to make 100% of the interior space usable. Whereas cylindrical shelters lose much space to the curved walls, the S-Series design creates a spacious, open feeling even for claustrophobics. The ceilings are eight to 10 feet tall. Furniture can be placed against walls.|
|HULL||The hexoid structural steel hull is designed in 8 ft. sections. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED The S-Series Hull is designed to protect people from scores of man-made and natural disasters up to and including nuclear weapon blasts.|
|CONVENTIONAL PLUMBING SYSTEM
Shelter models with this option will have conventional plumbing including a sub-micron water filter, a stainless steel utility sink, a fiberglass shower, a conventional flush toilet, a sewage lift to the high pressure septic system and toilet room venting. CIVILIAN: OPTIONAL MILITARY: INCLUDED
|Without the plumbing package you will rely on bottled water for drinking and washing. Waste will go to a “portable potty” which you will have to service. With the plumbing package you will have clean filtered drinking water for your kitchen faucet and shower. Your sewage will automatically be pumped to an external buried septic system.|
|DIESEL AND/OR SOLAR ELECTRICAL POWER Generator electricity comes standard with Military Shelters. The optional Solar Power package can be added to a Military Shelter but cannot replace the generator power system. Either a generator or solar can power a Civilian Shelter. Unless the shelter is to be used as an empty storage shell, it must have a power source to run the air filtration system. Solar and generator power packages include circuit breaker panels for 120 VAC and 12 VDC power for TV, DVD player, microwave and customer electric devices such as food preparation equipment. CIVILIAN: SOLAR AND GENERATOR OPTIONS MILITARY: EMP-SHIELDED GENERATOR||Watch TV and a DVD player. Cook food in a microwave. The plumbing system for water supply and waste removal will work with this electrical system.|
|STORAGE 100% interior usable space, and internal wall storage. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||You will have enough room to store more than one year of food, toilet paper and other critical supplies.|
|MULTI-ROOM SHELTER All models have separate room areas. The bathroom is inside wall partitions and has a locking door. Sound-attenuating foam suppressed generator (standard Military and optional Civilian) noise inside a pressurized separate room. The living area and power generation areas are separated. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||Generator noise does not interfere with your daily living, allowing you to stay inside the shelter for up to a year off grid.|
|OVERHEAD and ENTRANCEWAY RADIATION PERFORMANCE DATA All shelters have radiation doses listed from overhead and entranceways based on actual nuclear weapons tests. NORAD shelters have a total Rems in Shelter (TRS) of 3 rems from all sources at the shelter design pressure. CIVILIAN: INCLUDED MILITARY: INCLUDED||You know the maximum dose of radiation that will enter your shelter from overhead, the entranceway, and air ducts. The protection is a function of the shielding material over the shelter, and the geometry of the entranceway and air ducts. We provide you with gamma exposure calculations based on the bomb size, your distance from Ground Zero, and a constant 15 MPH wind. Use our Entranceway Radiation Calculator to determine the radiation exposure of any shelter you are considering purchasing.|
Bomb Shelters: Self-Contained, Off-Grid, Underground
- Breathing Air NBC (Nuclear Biological Chemical) Filtration System
- Generator NBC Air Filtration Cooling
- Emergency Communications Radios
- Steel Sections Assembled on Site
- Internal EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) Shielded Diesel Generator
- Flush Toilet, Conventional Septic System
- Shower, Sinks, Pressurized Hot and Cold Running Water
- Beds, Mattresses
- Claustrophobic-Friendly Spacious 10-ft. Ceilings
- Extremely Strong Steel Construction
- Emergency Escape Hatch
PROTECTION FROM WEAPONS and NATURALS DISASTERS
- EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) and HEMP (High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse) Weapons
- Nuclear Weapons
- Full-Scale Protracted Nuclear War
- Biological/Bioterrorism Weapons
- Chemical Weapons
- Nearby Terrorism and Criminal Activity
- Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
- Chemical Industry Accidents
- Biological Facility and Research Accidents
- Power Plant Failures
- Water Supply Contamination
- Severe Pollution
- Forest Fires
- Tornadoes, Typhoons, Monsoons, Cyclones and Hurricanes
- Man-Made and Natural Disasters
To Protect People During and After Disasters
The NORAD S-Series shelters were specifically designed and developed to protect people during and after disasters such as:
- full-scale protracted nuclear, chemical and biological war
- nuclear war blasts, nuclear war fallout, biological weapons, chemical weapons, conventional war, terrorism, dirty bombs
- EMP and HEMP attack, power grid failure, violence, rioting, social collapse, financial collapse, societal breakdown, resource shortages
- tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, storms, forest fires, cyclones, tsunamis, monsoons
Spacious and Strong
The NORAD S-Series shelters are totally self-contained structural steel underground disaster shelters rated at 10 PSI overThe S12, S16, S24 and S30 are each composed of 8 foot sections. Section widths are 12 ft. (S12), 16 ft. (S16), 24 ft. (S24) and 30 ft. (S30). Each 8 ft. section includes the hexoid arch (ceiling), shelving, and steel foundation. All hull material is structural steel that is epoxy coated inside and outside. The steel foundation forms the floor and a gravity flange for high water tables. The foundation acts as a barrier preventing radon and methane gas from entering the shelter. No concrete is used so it is not considered a permanent structure. This usually means that a building permit is not required. The hexoid ceiling is extremely strong and provides a spacious feeling especially for claustrophobic people.
These NBC EMP Nuclear War Blast Shelters are Also Panic Rooms and Storm Shelters
All NORAD S-Series bomb shelters protect occupants from a 100 kiloton surface burst nuclear bomb blast 0.9 miles away. Military shelters and upgraded Civilian shelters also protect shelterists from nuclear fallout, biological and chemical agents, ground fires and floods. Long term off-grid capacity allows shelter owners to protect themselves from the effects of power-grid loss due to EMP attack or financial and social meltdown. The S-Series underground shelters are panic rooms allowing owners to buy valuable time when faced with imminent violence. All NORAD S-Series underground bomb shelters are also storm shelters. The least-equipped Civilian shelter to the most-equipped Military shelter protect occupants from storms, floods, monsoons, tornadoes, cyclones, hurricanes and dust storms including 350 MPH winds and 1700 deg. F. ground fires.
Corrosion Protection System
The NORAD S SERIES SHELTER hull exterior and interior are painted prior to shipping. The inside epoxy white coating has excellent flame and smoke properties. The exterior epoxy coating has strong dielectric properties and excellent cathodic bonding and abrasion resistance properties. Underground corrosion is an electrical process and the shelter hull and foundation corrosion is virtually stopped by the Cathodic Protection System. Unlike an underground galvanized tank or culvert where the shelter itself erodes over time requiring the shelter hull pressure rating to be de-rated 2-5% each year, the corrosion protection system forces the underground anodes connected to the shelter to erode instead of the shelter hull. The corrosion protection system is monitored by a meter mounted on the shelter wall indicating that the corrosion protection system is operating and when the anodes needs to be replaced. The corrosion protection system allows support of a 30-50 year structural warranty.
S-Series Bomb Shelter Design Patent Pending
The NORAD S-Series Blast Shelter is a very efficient shape. People operating in the shelter have full use of the area. The living area is 100% useful. The walls are vertical. The ceiling is hexoid starting at 8 ft. and rising to 10 ft. A 6 ft. tall person inside has a minimum of 8 ft. of space overhead.
This model is a fifth generation disaster shelter manufactured to PRINCIPLES of PROTECTION, U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Standards, Sixth Edition, 2013, Brown Books, which is the United State’s bible on shelter engineering standards. It is known in the industry as P.O.P.
Structural Steel Hull Sections are Assembled On-Site
Bomb Shelter Facilities
The NORAD S SERIES SHELTER provides headroom from 8 ft. to 10 ft. This allows relatively normal living and a very spacious feeling. There is ample light for reading anywhere in the shelter supplied by LED white lights. Fresh filtered air is brought into the shelter by a 12-volt air blower designed to operate 24 hours per day and supplies many times the breathing volume of air required by adults. This system has the advantage of maintaining constant shelter temperature, constant shelter oxygen levels, constant shelter carbon dioxide levels, and constant shelter moisture levels, plus it prevents overheating which is common with manual air blowers in warm climates. In addition, this electric blower air supply system works with all people including young children, people who are sick, people who are injured, people who are handicapped, and people who are elderly who may not be able to operate a manual blower system during a disaster. Exhausting of hot, moist, spent air is facilitated through the air ceiling exhaust to the air manifold at ground level. This is an efficient method of exhausting spent air, especially when resisting intruder assaults is a critical part of the shelter design. The NORAD S-Series shelters can be “Fit Out” inside with conventional walls and doors.
Bomb Shelter Protection from EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) Event or Attack
The NORAD S Series was designed to meet MIL-STD-188-125: “High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Ground-Based C4I Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent Missions Part 1: Fixed Facilities” 17 July 1998. All mission essential equipment (MEE) vulnerable to EMP is mounted in a tested aluminum EMP shielded enclosure. The NORAD S Series is self-contained and not connected to the electrical grid. The only MEE equipment in the shelter that are vulnerable to EMP are the inverter/charger, generators, and generator/battery bank controls, which are all mounted in an aluminum EMP shielded enclosure. The EMP shielded enclosures meet QQ-A-200/8, MIL-C-7438, MIL-T-10727, and shielding minimums of MIL-188-125. The shelter system also includes a 2 ft3 EMP vault to store other electronic components in such as laptops, radios, TV’s, CD player etc.
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Shielding to Military Standard MIL-STD-188-125
Military Standard EMP Protection of Military Essential Equipment (MEE)
The NORAD S-Series EMP Protection system meets MIL-STD-188-125. It protects the diesel generator and generator control*, inverter/battery charger*, generator battery bank controls*, and radios. The Military Model with a diesel generator and inverter/battery charger are protected by EMP Shielded Enclosures and designed to protect 4-100 troops for one year off-grid. The military version is also available to citizens. * MEE or Military Essential Equipment The NORAD approach to making an underground shelter EMP shielded, and a well accepted military practice, is to assume the shelter hull is EMP transparent and shield each individual unit vulnerable to EMP. The POEs in a shielded enclosure for a few cables are small and can be easily shielded. Also, unlike unprotected underground shelters, EMP shielded enclosures can be tested individually. Underground shelters with EMP shielded enclosures for MEE (Minimum Essential Equipment) meet the MIL-188-125 Standard. The NORAD S-SERIES Shelter has been reviewed for an EMP Protection Analysis by a Certified Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineer and a Certified Electrostatic Discharge Control Engineer and found to comply with MIL-STD-188-125 with a shielded enclosure for MEE.
EMP Protection “Golden Rule”
The golden rule for EMP protection in underground shelters is, “DO NOT USE THE SHELTER HULL AS AN EMP SHIELD AND DO NOT USE THE EMP SHIELD AS A SHELTER.” The major problem in making underground shelters EMP safe is dealing with all the POEs or “points of entry’ in underground shelter hulls that allow EMP to enter the shelter. Anything penetrating the hull such as entranceways, emergency escape tunnels, air inlet hoses, air outlet hoses, water hoses, electrical lines, and radio cables, etc., all need EMP shielded gaskets and/or EMP shielded air vents. Steel cannot be used as a Faraday Cage because it is not conductive enough. Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens/meter (õ S/m). The minimum conductivity for a Faraday Cage to completely shield an EMP is 15,000,000 Siemens per meter. Steel has a conductivity of only 7,000,000 S/m so it is not conductive enough to effectively attenuate all EMP frequencies. Aluminum has a conductivity of 35,000,000 S/m and copper 60,000,000 S/m so both materials are very well suited for a Faraday Cage to effectively shield EMP.
Floor Space, Volume, Bouyancy and Counter Bouyancy
|NORAD S SHELTER SIZE||FLOOR SPACE FT2||VOLUME FT3||BUOYANCY LBS||COUNTER BUOYANCY 70 LBS/FT3 EARTH|
|S12 Wall Section||96||1,128||70,387||89,040|
|S16 Wall Section||128||1,424||88,858||126,560|
|S24 Wall Section||192||2,084||130,042||165,760|
|S30 Wall Section||240||2,555||159,432||228,480|
The NORAD S-Series Shelters were designed using CAD (computer aided drafting), CAE (Computer Aided Engineering), and FEAM (3-Dimensional Finite Element analysis and Modeling). The structural shape of the NORAD S-Series Shelter allows it to be a true pressure vessel for resistance to high external pressure.
Bomb Shelter Foundation
The NORAD S-Series shelters use a steel foundation. This is a faster to install and a more structurally stable design that is more resilient and can take greater ground shock than reinforced concrete foundations. Steel is also a barrier for Radon and Methane gas usually found in soils. The floor of the shelter is steel, not concrete, which eliminates the need for a dehumidifier working 24 hours per day to keep the shelter dry. The steel foundation has a gravity ledge to use submerged soil on top of the gravity ledge to resist hydrostatic pressure in locations where the water table reaches the surface.
Bomb Shelter Solar or Diesel Generator Power
The NORAD S-Series Shelters can be supplied with a 2 KW solar system with an AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) battery bank. During peace time, a single solar panel can maintain the battery bank. After an EMP event, the solar panel is considered sacrificed and 8 solar panels that have been stored in the supplied EMP shielded enclosure can be put in place to supply power indefinitely. The NORAD S Series Shelter can also be supplied with an internal 6.5 KW high speed or a 10 KW slow speed water cooled diesel generator connected to an 800 gallon aluminum diesel tank located in a sealed and pressurized generator room. The tank is serviced by a circulating pump, filter and fill port to accept fuel, emulsifiers, and fungicides. The generator is housed in an aluminum/nickel EMP shielded enclosure meeting QQ-A-200/8, MIL-C-7438, MIL-T-10727 and MIL-188-125 EMP shielding and is an isolated enclosure. The generator enclosure is vented through the shelter ceiling. The generator room is a separate room pressurized with NBC filtered air. Diesel is also useful if power is needed to supply to another structure such as a house to be used after a disaster event. Shelter durations shown below are based on 16 – 24 hours/day operation of the TV, DVD player, computer, radios etc.
Bomb Shelter Geometry Efficiency
The military stopped using culverts and tanks for underground bomb shelters to protect equipment and troops in the late 50’s due to structural issues from corrosion, design issues since culverts were never designed to be used as a closed end structure, failure mode, and space efficiency. The round structure proved to be inefficient for troops or people to operate in for long periods. The floor spans are narrow, and the curved walls make partitions, cabinets, and storage space hard to utilize. Underfloor storage is hard to access and less than 30% efficient. The conventional tank or culvert is now only used for civilian applications where the market is price sensitive and does not require performance data. NORAD bomb shelters have 100% efficiency for both storage and people with absolutely no under floor storage. All food, supplies, and toilet paper for more than one year for many troops can be stored in the wall cavities not taking up any floor space. The products stored in the walls are easy also to access and monitor. Performance data is published for radiation doses from overhead, radiation doses from the entranceway, pressure ratings at safe radiation doses, shelter durations based on off-grid available power, monitored corrosion system protection, sanitation standards, air filtration data, etc.
S-Series Bomb Shelters Offer Much More Space than Cylindrical Shelters
S-Series Bomb Shelter EMP-Shielded AC/DC Inverter
Inverters convert DC power of the battery bank to 120 VAC power or house current. The inverter/charger is located inside an aluminum/nickel EMP shielded enclosure meeting QQ-A-200/8, MIL-C-7438, MIL-T-10727 and MIL-188-125 shielding.
Bomb Shelter Duration in Days
This table shows the relationship between the shelter’s elevation above sea level and how long the diesel generator should last. For example, if the shelter is 2000 feet above sea level and uses a 10 KW diesel engine at .4 gallons per hour (gph) for 4 hours a day, expect generator fuel to last 465 days.
|800 gallon diesel fuel tank
6 .5 KW Internal Diesel @ 75% load .4 gph x 4 hrs/day
10 KW Internal Slow Speed Diesel @ 50% load .4 gph x 4 hours/day
|Altitude – Feet Above Sea Level||Shelter Duration Days|
Bomb Shelter Septic System
The NORAD S-Series Bomb Shelter is normally connected to a 1000 gallon septic tank with a leach chamber system size based on the percolation test. The septic system has an indefinite duration just like that of a conventional house.
S.E.A.M NBC Air Filtration, PATENT PENDING
The NORAD S-Series bomb shelter has two modern air filtration systems called SEAM units (Severe Environment Air Module. One SEAM) unit is dedicated to the supplying cooling and combustion air to the generator and one SEAM unit is dedicated to the breathing air for life support. Each SEAM unit can be supplied as a dust filter only version or full NBC air filtration version. The Dust filter version filter removes dust particles to keep the shelter clean. This version is normally used for the storm shelter models. For this version, the filter elements can come into direct contact with human skin since the only contaminant is physical dust particles. The Nuclear-Biological-Chemical or NBC version S.E.A.M. is a “Bag-In/Bag Out” NBC air filtration system designed for long-term operation in severe NBC environments. The NBC filter housing is made of stainless steel. The generator SEAM supplies NBC filtered air directly to the generator room when the generator is operating. This system allows maintenance on a generator that is free of NBC contamination since its combustion and cooling air is NBC filtered air which is a military requirement. In order to qualify as a long-term NBC air filtration system for more than 30 days, the HEPA and carbon trays have to be able to be removed and replaced. The trays are replaced using a “bag in bag out” system so there is no human contact with the contaminated filter elements. On the front side of the filter housing is a vacuum dial gage which indicates when the filter is operating normally and when the filters need to be changed.
Bomb Shelter Breathing Air Outlet
The spent breathing air containing carbon dioxide, heat, moisture, and odors exits the shelter at the ceiling of the shelter at the opposite end to the SEAM air filtration system. The air outlet manifold contains a stainless steel screen to prevent insects from entering the shelter.
Bomb Shelter Air Manifold Systems
S-Series shelters use cathodically protected heavy steel TRUSS Mushroom® Air Manifolds covered by US Patents Pending. One set is for the breathing air and one set is for the generator cooling and combustion air. The air manifolds are very low profile, low angle of incidence, and provide little surface area for flying debris to hit and traffic can run over these air manifolds. This design meets 100+ psi overpressure and -5 psi underpressure. (see Weapon Effects for Blast wind speeds at various overpressures) The air manifolds are designed for H20 or 20,000 lb. axle load running over the air manifolds with no damage or visual deflection. The intake breathing air manifold is more than 15 feet away from the generator exhaust air manifold meeting the ASHRAE 62 requirement for indoor air quality. This type of air manifold, low profile hatch, and TRS rating allow the NORAD shelters to be classified as a “Blast Shelter“. A common brick is shown for scale in the photo.
Hot Air Filter Change Out Protection
In the case where the shelter is located near a nuclear air, ground, or surface burst detonation putting fallout into the atmosphere, any HEPA filter in any air filtration system located in the shelter will become too radioactive and dangerous to the shelterists to keep in the filter housing even though the vacuum gage may read normal. The level of radioactivity in the filter comes from radioactive contaminants in the HEPA filter tray which can be measured by a radiation meter by just standing in front of the access doors and holding the radiation meter at the center of the access cover. When the reading is above 1 rad/hr., the HEPA filter should be changed. Almost all of the initial fallout will have fallen in the first 24 hours so changing the HEPA filters should automatically be implemented after this period. Specific procedures are found in the NORAD SHELTER OPERATOR MANUAL for replacing filter elements.
The SEAM system for life support is located at the far end of the shelter and supplies 40-200 cfm of fresh NBC filtered air and operates 24 hours per day. The air filtration system consists of three stages of air filtration. The first stage is a HEPA filter to remove physical particles that are 0.3 microns and larger at 99.99% efficiency. The second filter tray is activated carbon to remove radioactive iodine gas and has a minimum residence time of .25 seconds. The third filter tray is TEDA carbon to remove chemical warfare agents with a minimum residence time of 0.25 seconds. Each carbon tray weighs approximately 35 lbs. and any of the trays can be changed by one person in approximately ten minutes. For extended Sealed Shelter Atmosphere durations, a Lithium Hydroxide carbon scrubber tray can be used. One Lithium Hydroxide tray will remove enough carbon dioxide for ten people to stay in the shelter for approximately 24 hours. The top of the NBC filter housing has a gas agent test port to test for chemical agents using the supplied Chemical Agent Test Kit. A radiation survey meter is also supplied.
Bomb Shelter Sealed Shelter Atmosphere
When ground fires are present around the hatch, the air blower should not be turned on to bring in fresh air. During this time, the shelterists must breathe in a sealed shelter atmosphere. The safe duration time is based on a 3% carbon dioxide limit. The time it takes for the shelter atmosphere to reach this limit is a function of the number of shelterists, degree of physical activity of the shelterists, and the volume of the shelter above the floor. Sealed Shelter Atmosphere graphs are provided for each specific shelter. See NORAD S Emergency Operations brochure.
Bomb Shelter Storage Space
The NORAD S SERIES SHELTER walls were designed to store 5 gallon buckets in the wall cavity. Each 8 ft. section can store 48- 5 gallon buckets plus other items such as books or No. 10 cans so no floor space is taken up by food or toilet paper storage. A key feature of the NORAD S SERIES SHELTER is that it has enough floor space and efficient wall geometry to allow equipment, such as shelving and furniture, to be placed against the wall at the edge of the floor.
Bomb Shelter Water Supply
The NORAD S-Series bomb shelter is designed to accept water from dedicated water well powered by the shelter power system, not powered on the local power grid, to prevent water pump damage from a HEMP weapon. A backup water pump can be kept in the shelter in the EMP vault. There are also optional 2500 gallon underground water tanks which supplies a six month duration for 6 people. NORAD does not supply water. We supply the plumbing that uses the water and optional the tank and pump if a well is not available.
Bomb Shelter Seismic Joint
The connection between the entranceway and the hull is made through a double axis seismic joint. This allows the entranceway to move independently without overstressing the hull end wall. The entranceway can be located within the frost line, while the shelter is well below the frost line. This creates tremendous stresses during winter months when the entranceway is forced up 0.5 – 1.25 inches due to frozen ground. The seismic joint removes these stresses by allowing vertical and lateral movement of the entranceway to maintain structural integrity during rolling ground motion from severe ground shock.
Engineering Standards and Testing
NORAD S-Series bomb shelters are built to the engineering standards set forth in “The Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals And Shelter Engineering Design Standards”
NORAD S-Series shelters are tested by Finite Element Analysis or FEA. This is a scientific method of using material properties and an actual model that is broken up into small elements. Each element is loaded under a variety of load conditions to confirm stress and deformation. FEA is how all aircraft and spacecraft are tested because it is so incredibly accurate. Physical testing of underground shelters was abandoned in the late 60’s in favor of FEA analysis which proved to be much more accurate since it can simulate numerous different soil conditions.
The 68 Degree 36 Inch Diameter Entranceway with 30 Inch. Diameter Hatch as Bomb Shelter Emergency Escape Entranceway
The 68 degree 36 inch diameter entranceway with a 30 inch diameter clear opening is usually used for emergency escape and is connected to the shelter though a seismic joint. The flush spring loaded steel hatch at ground level can be easily concealed. The opening manhole allows large people to enter the shelter quickly. The hatch cover is spring loaded to open and requires 10 lbs. of force to pull closed. The hatch can withstand 350 mph winds and is designed to protect the shelter from a fire reaching 1700 deg F for one hour while maintaining its structural integrity in compliance to ASTM E119. Although the hatch is not impenetrable, it is specifically de-signed to resist seven basic assaults from people trying to break into the shelter in compliance to P.O.P.
45 Degree Walk-In Entranceway
The main entranceway is through a 72 inch diameter tunnel at a 45 degree angle connected to the shelter through a seismic joint. The flush steel hatch at ground level is aerodynamically smooth with a clear opening of 30 inches x 60 inches. There is nothing for flying debris to hit and the hatch can withstand 350 mph winds and is designed to protect the shelter from a fire reaching 1700 deg F for one hour while maintaining its structural integrity in compliance to ASTM E119.
Bomb Shelter Emergency Escape
In the event that heavy debris falls on the hatch cover and the radios are not able to bring help to clear the hatch, emergency escape procedures can be implemented. The NORAD S-Series bomb shelter uses a manually operated mechanical jack to force the hatch open. The 18 inch long handle will require 50 lbs. downward force to generate 16,000 pounds of uplifting force.
Bomb Shelter Hatch Exterior and Lock
The NORAD S-Series bomb shelter hatch opens from the outside with a special mechanical key that cannot be made from a locksmith. When the shelter is unoccupied, a mechanical hasp and padlock is used. When the shelter is entered, the hasp and padlock are taken into the shelter. When inside the shelter, the hatch can be closed by turning a dog lever and inserting a locking pin. The hatch cover is designed to resist 5 PSI negative pressure (5,000 lbs.) of uplifting force caused by the negative pressure of a tornado or explosion and 40 PSI (20,000 lbs.) of overpressure. The average time it takes for untrained or inexperienced people to enter the shelter is approximately 5-10 seconds per person.
Connectors Join Emergency Shelters to Homes, Office Buildings, Hospitals and Other Emergency Shelters
Emergency shelters join to other emergency shelters and to existing structures using NORAD Connector tunnels. A connector port with a seismic joint is standard on end walls in both Military and Civilian underground emergency shelter models. Each shelter has two end walls. Each end wall will be configured as a closed port, a hatch and entranceway, or as a Connector tunnel to another structure.
Double and Tripod Connectors
Double and Tripod Connectors join two or three structures, respectively. Double Connectors join two emergency shelters together, or join an emergency shelter to a home, office, hospital or other structure. The Tripod Connector joins three structures together. The picture shows several Tripod Connectors joining multiple shelters into one Emergency Operations Center with multiple shelter components. The Tripod Connector can also connect an emergency shelter to a home, office, hospital or other existing structure.
Emergency Operations Centers and Corporate Continuity
NORAD supplies Emergency Operations Centers (EOC) and Corporate Continuity Facilities by connecting together two or more emergency underground shelters. Instead of a hatch and entranceway, a connected end wall has a tunnel Connector leading to a pre-existing structure or another underground emergency shelter. Both end walls can be connected to other structures. Shelters can be chained together through Connector tunnels. The end units have entranceways and hatches for entering and exiting the chained structures. First responders and hospitals use EOC’s to give emergency care when surface conditions are too dangerous. Law enforcement uses them to coordinate police response to disasters and riots. Corporations use Corporate Continuity Facilities to maintain business operations during disasters and emergencies.
An Emergency Operations Center can be as small as one shelter, which would not use a Connector. All other combinations of structures use Double or Tripod Connector tunnels to join the shelters together and to hospitals or offices.
Homeowners and businesses can connect their shelters to their homes and offices using Connector tunnels. The Connector Tunnel allows the shelter to be used as a Panic Room. Individuals can escape to the tunnel and into the shelter. The shelter has several intruder protection features protecting shelterists once they are locked inside.
Bomb Shelter Defense
|S-Series Bomb Shelter Intruder Defenses|
|The NORAD S SERIES SHELTER is not impenetrable but is difficult to break into while shelterists are inside.|
|Intruder Assault||Hatch and Air Manifold Resistance|
|Intruder trying to break into hatch using sledgehammer, hatchets, and guns||The steel hatch and air manifold resists hammer and hatchet assaults|
|Intruder trying to clog the air intake/outlet manifold to suffocate the shelterists thus forcing them outside||Shelterists can wait in safety in the shelter for many hours in sealed shelter atmosphere while the intruder is exposed to the outside danger.|
|Intruder trying to suffocate shelterists by creating a fire on top of the hatch or air manifold thus forcing the shelterists outside.||The hatch and air manifold are resistant to fire up to 1700 F. and the shelterists can breathe normally inside the shelter based on sealed shelter atmosphere.|
|An intruder trying to run over the shelter or hatch with an automobile or truck||A vehicle running over the hatch will not damage the hatch. If this vehicle becomes a threat. the Emergency Escape System can be used.|
|An intruder trying to drown shelterists by forcing water into the air inlet/out||The air inlet on the hatch are baffled to prevent this type of assault.|
|An intruder trying to attach rope onto the hatch or air manifolds to damage or pull it out of ground.||The hatch is a smooth design with no projections to easily attach to.|
|All attacks above||Release of tear gas through hatch.|
|Details are reviewed in Owner’s Manual.|
Bomb Shelter Internal Pressure Control (Blast Protection)
8 inch diameter stainless steel blast valves prevent protect occupants from over pressure and under pressure. The valves are located inside the shelter where they can be easily serviced. These valves are normally open, then close from blast overpressure or negative pressure, maintaining the normal shelter atmosphere. The air inlet and outlet openings are also sized to allow over pressure choking as a redundant system. Blast valves are located inside the shelter directly above the SEAM air filtration unit and on the air outlet on the ceiling.
|DIRECT EFFECTS OF OVER PRESSURE ON HUMANS NOT BEING HIT BY FLYING DEBRIS3|
|15-20 psi||Ear drums rupture for persons 20+ years old|
|20-30 psi||Severe lung damage|
|30-35 psi||Eardrums rupture for persons <20 years|
|30-50 psi||Lethal threshold|
|50-75 psi||50% fatalities|
|75-115 psi||100% fatalities|
3PRINCIPLES of PROTECTION, U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Standards, Sixth Edition, 737 p., 243
Bomb Shelter Plumbing System
The NORAD bomb shelter plumbing package uses conventional plumbing materials such as a flush toilet and a 1,000 gallon septic system.. The walls, doors and siding are the same as found in a regular house. Storage is available in the kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Instead of using a “porta potty” type toilet, the plumbing package includes a standard conventional non-clog flush toilet. Waste is automatically removed to the high-pressure septic system. The toilet room is kept under negative pressure and vented so that its air is always fresh. The sewage station can lift a 1,000 gallon septic tank 24 ft. The septic tank will be outfitted with leach chambers based on the on-site percolation test. Water Filter – A UV water filtration system filters at 0.5 microns with 99.999% efficiency. Filtered water is used at the sink(s), shower, and toilet. Stainless Steel Counter and Sink – The counter contains a large stainless steel utility sink where dishes, clothes, and pets are washed. Fittings – The shelter entranceway contains NPTF thru-hull couplings below ground level, for plumbing and electrical connection to the water tank or well and bringing in antenna lines or a phone line. Shower – The fiberglass shower floor allows all water from the shower head to drain into the sewage lift station. NBC decontamination is performed in this shower using the supplied decontamination solution and spray bottle. Cooking – The S-Series solar shelters come with a single-burner methanol cooking stove. The S-Series diesel-generator shelters come with an electric double burner cooking stove. Both types of shelter come with a microwave oven. Toilet – The toilet used is a conventional flush toilet draining into the sewage lift station under the shower floor. The sewage is pumped up to the septic tank through an internal and external hose. Septic – The sink, shower, and toilet drain into a sewage lift station which transfers sewage up to a high pressure septic system. The toilet room has a blower to keep the toilet room in negative pressure venting all odors to the ground surface.
Bomb Shelter Emergency Communications Scanner and HAM Radio
The communications center consists of a HAM radio and scanner radio mounted inside a vented EMP aluminum shielded enclosure per MIL-STD-188-125, 25 ft. guyless antenna mast, and cables.
The Emergency Disaster Management Communications Package includes a scanner for listening, and a HAM radio for two-way conversation. Shelterists can manage and coordinate with personnel, troops, first responders and family. The Communications Package includes the radios, their associated cables, antennas and antenna mast. The package is standard in Military fallout shelters and optional in the Civilian fallout shelters.
Many first responder agencies use HAM frequencies which makes having a HAM radio inside the working fallout shelter likely form of outside communication.
The HAM radio operates at 2M (meters) and 70 cm (centimeters) wavelengths. Allowed communication on 2M and 70 cm includes FM Voice, RTTY (Radio Teletype), OSCAR (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio), SSB (Single Sideband) and CW (Continuous Wave). The frequencies are used for local communication.
The underground fallout shelter HAM radio and scanner are mounted inside an EMP vault, meeting MIL-STD-188-125. The communications systems will work after an electromagnetic pulse, when all other forms of communication are almost definitely down.
Bomb Shelter Radiation Shielding
The protection factor (PF) of a shelter is the ratio of a radiation dose over smooth ground which would be received by an unprotected person, compared to the dose that would be received by a person in a sheltered location. For example, a PF of 40 means that a person would receive 1/40th the radiation in a shelter compared to the radiation that he would receive unprotected. A PF of 100 = 1/100th. This is the fraction of radiation that a shelterist would receive from overhead (not accounting for radiation entered through the entranceway). The PF alone should never be used to determine the radiation entering a blast shelter since most of the radiation entering a shelter comes from the entranceway.. The Half Value Layer Thickness (HVL) is the material thickness required to reduce the radiation dose to half. Earth has an HVL of 5.5 inches and concrete has an HVL of 4.7 inches will reduce the radiation dose to half. NORAD shelters have a gamma protection factor of 8,192 and a neutron protection factor of 32,768.
Nuclear Bomb Protection
A shelterist in the NORAD S-Series Shelter under heavy, direct effects from two 1-MT nuclear weapons, has at least the same probability of survival (99.7%) as a person living and working in peacetime.
Radiation shielding from overhead in the NORAD S-Series Shelter is provided by 72 inches of earth at the crown of the shelter ceiling. With a TRS (Total Rems in Shelter at the shelter entrance) of 3 rems at 10 psi (0.9 miles from GZ of a 100 KT weapon), the shelterist would be safe. This 30 day dose is based on a 100 KT burst to estimate radioactive fallout and a 500 KT air burst to estimate entranceway radiation (See of PRINCIPLES of PROTECTION, U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Standards, Sixth Edition, 737 pp, 2013)
Based on the worst cancer cases (leukemia) from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki victims, a 10-rem dose may increase the cancer rates from the current rate of 352/100,000 up to 355/100,000. It should be kept in mind that the Hiroshima victims were totally unprepared and uneducated. They were malnourished and already suffering from many diseases during a critical wartime period where food, medical supplies, and other necessities were in short supply. In addition, they were not only exposed to heavy, acute external radiation doses but also internal radiation doses from eating contaminated food and inhaling radioactive fallout. Educated shelterists can avoid such damaging effects and can determine the radiation levels with a simple radiation survey meter supplied with the NORAD S SERIES SHELTER along with a chemical agent detection kit.
GAMMA AND NEUTRON RADIATION DOSES COMBINED IN REMS INSIDE A SHELTER BASED ON EARTH COVER
|100 KT SURFACE BURST|
|Dist. GZ||MSD||0.5 MI||0.6 MI||0.7 MI||0.8 MI||0.9 MI||1 MI||10 MI||25 MI||50 MI||100 MI|
|Initial Gamma rems||25,000||25,000||10,000||4,500||2,000||1,200||500||0||0||0||0|
|Fallout Gamma rems||9,554||9,554||9,554||9,554||9,554||9,554||9,554||5,800||3,800||375||100|
|PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTION, The US Handbook of NBC Weapons Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards, 6th edition, 2013, Walton McCarthy M.E. Brown Books.|
Bomb Shelter Installation Rights
U.S. citizens have a legal right to install a shelter. Under the second amendment of the United States Constitution, U.S. citizens are guaranteed the right to bear arms to provide protection in life threatening situations. Tornadoes, earthquakes, nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare fall under this amendment as life threatening forces. A disaster shelter falls under this classification as a defensive arm. The NORAD S shelters are considered a temporary structure that can be unbolted and redeployed to another location.
GENERAL SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
- The customer signs a Sales Agreement with NORAD SHELTER SYSTEMS LLC® to manufacture and deliver the shelter system.
- The customer hires a contractor to dig a hole according to the supplied excavation plan. If the shelter is installed in a flood zone, the shelter should be installed by berming so the hatch is at least one foot above the 100-year flood plain or storm surge. Berming can also be used if the shelter is installed in a location which has ledge.
- The shelter sections are shipped to the job sight. All of the NORAD S SERIES SHELTERS are legal in width, length, and height and do not require overdimension permits.
- The steel sections are craned into place.
- The shelter sections are bolted and gasketed together.
- The entranceway and emergency escape are lifted onto the end walls and bolted with gaskets.
- The corrosion protection system is connected
- The shelter is partially backfilled.
- The external air ducts and air manifolds are installed
- The septic system is installed.
- The well is connected
- The shelter final backfilled is completed.
- The ground around the shelter is rough graded.
- Fuel is delivered to the shelter if gen option is chosen
- The internal walls are erected.
- The electric and plumbing are completed.
- NORAD SHELTER SYSTEMS supervisor will run through Alpha trials with customer.
Bomb Shelter Warranty
NORAD SHELTER SYSTEMS LLC® Warranties that the structural parts of the NORAD S-Series Bomb Shelter will not fail for 30, 40, or 50 years provided that 1) the shelter is properly assembled and backfilled, 2) the shelter is not exposed to excessive overpressure, 3) The structural parts of the shelter are not modified. 4) the shelter is maintained in compliance to the NORAD S SERIES SHELTER SYSTEMS’s Operator’s Manual 5) No structures are built over or near the shelter without a written approval from NORAD SHELTER SYSTEMS based on engineering requirements. NORAD SHELTER SYSTEMS is continuously improving its designs and therefore reserves the right to change any specification without notice. We shall not be liable for any indirect or consequential damages, labor, or installation costs for any claim.